CATALOGUE OF SUBSTITUTIONS


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Examples from the industry: Iron and metal, electronics and automotive industries
Number of examples: 93
Pulvermaling til industrivaskemaskiner - fra epoxy/polyester binder til polyester
Jensen Danmark skiftede fra en epoxy/polyester baseret pulvermaling (MAL kode 00-5) til en polyesterbaseret pulvermaling Mal kode 00-1. Malingen anvendes på det samme anlæg, har bedre tekniske egenskaber end den gamle og affaldet kan afleveres som erhvervsaffald. Der er en energimæssig besparelse (lavere temperatur). Til gengæld er den nyere maling dyrere i indkøb.
Jensen Denmark A/S - Friday, April 15, 2011



Intermediate cleaning by recirculation-air blow system
Car cylinder heads made of alu-aloys are cleaned intermediately from cooling lubricants and chips in an inline recirculation-air blow-system without any agent.
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Thursday, June 26, 2008



Cleaning of worm wheels by vibration before fitting
Cleaning of worm wheels made of brass from cutting oils and chips by vibration apparatus integrated in production line.
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Thursday, June 26, 2008



Laser cleaning of brake linings before powder coating
Brake pads made of steel are cleaned from oxides and minute organic residue automatically in the production line by a solid-state laser.
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Thursday, June 26, 2008



Bio-cleaning for construction parts
Steel parts e.g. for construction are cleaned from oils, dust, corrosion protec., rust, welding residue and metal fines by a biological cleaning process in a multiple immersion plant (integrated pickling, fluxing and galvanising).
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Thursday, June 26, 2008



Bio wash stand for small items
Small items from maintenance/repair made (e.g. cylinder heads) of steel, cast iron, alu, brass are cleaned from oils, greases and fines on a wash stand using a bio cleaner.
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Thursday, June 26, 2008



Jet engine parts microphase cleaning to allow cracks detection
Jet engine parts from repair and maintenance made of stainless steel, nickel-alloys and titan are cleaned from grease, oil and combustion residue by a micro phase system in a one-chamber spray plant; thereafter crack detection.
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Wednesday, June 25, 2008



Cleaning of cast cylinder heads by shockwave technology
Cleaning after casting of cylinder heads made of aluminium from cast sand, smoothener and chips by shockwave technology; thereafter shipping for mechanical treatment.

Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Wednesday, June 25, 2008



Cleaning of resistance welding robots with CO2 pellets
Robots for resistance welding of car body parts are cleaned from slag and spatters by mobile blast machines and CO2 dry ice pellets. Thereafter normal welding operation of robots.
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Wednesday, June 25, 2008



Cleaning reels from die cutting by high pressure water jet
Reels from die cutting (eg for manufacturing plugs with many pins)made of stainless steel, copper alloys or tinned copper are cleaned from punching oils and tin flitter in a high-pressure water-jet (integrated in production line) using only tap water; thereafter application of plastic or welding.

Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Wednesday, June 25, 2008



Cleaning of motorbike repair parts with esters at a wash stand
Cleaning of motorbike repair parts at a washstand with vegetable oil based esters from dust, mineral oil, grease, soot, tar, metal fines, oxides, sand and salt. Thereafter repair and assembling.
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Wednesday, June 25, 2008



Lift rails cleaning with esters
Manual cleaning of rails for lifts made of steel from corrosionprotection (tectyl), oils, grease, dust, sand and rust using esters wiping with cotton rags; thereafter rails are fitted
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Wednesday, June 25, 2008



Blasting of ship's hull with CO2 ice pellets
Newly built ships made of steel covered with primer are cleaned of residue, oxides and soot from welding and gas cutting using CO2 pellets and a manual blasting equipment (pressed air operated), thereafter another corrosion protection paint is applied.
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Wednesday, June 25, 2008



Shipyard - Cleaning of small parts from repair with esters.
Small items from repair work and maintenance in a ship yard e.g. bearings, casings, bolts and sheets made of steel are cleaned from lubricants, oils, metal fines and sand by fatty acids esters on a wash stand.
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Wednesday, June 25, 2008



Brake cleaning
Lorry and van drum brakes are cleaned for repair- and maintenance purposes from mud, dust and sand by a hot water washer. This is a kind of wash stand fitted with a flow heater and a spray gun. The tap water is heated to 95°C and sprayed on the brakes thereby removing the dirt and also heating the brakes so they dry rapidly after cleaning. Thereafter the parts are reassembled.
Usually in garages aerosol cans containing highly volatile organic solvents are applied, having a high risk of fires and explosions as well as leading to inhalation of the solvents by the workers.
The German accident insurance recommends the hot water washers. The jet does not cause scaldings on the skin, because it is a very finely sprayed mist. When asked in Nov. 2007 the company confirmed, that they are still content with the process and that it is still being applied.
Cooperation Centre Hamburg - Wednesday, May 28, 2008



Brug af rapsolie som køle-/smøremiddel.
Til doseringssmurte saveanlæg anvendes traditionelle køle-/smøremidler. Det er muligt at erstatte disse midler med almindelig rapsolie.
Aalborg aluminium Industri - Friday, March 28, 2008



Vandbaserede affedtningsmidler til metalemner
Når metalemner skal affedtes anvendes affedtningsmidler, der ofte indeholder sundhedsskadelige indholdsstoffer. Disse kan erstattes af vandbaserede produkter.
Alectia A/S - Thursday, March 27, 2008



Brug af robot til rengøring af dieselmotorer
Manuel rengøring af dieselmotorer i tog kan automatiseres ved brug af en robot.
Alectia A/S - Wednesday, March 26, 2008



Brug af Chromit i stedet for Chrom 6 og Chrom 3 som korrosionsbeskyttelse
Ved el-galvanisering af emner i metal har der gennem mange år været anvendt Chrom 6 og Chrom 3, som korrosionsbeskyttelse. Det er muligt, at bruge Chromit i stedet for.


Alectia A/S - Thursday, March 13, 2008



Erstatning af syrer under bejdsning i jern - og maskinindustrien
Termisk afgratning af metalemner sker ofte med brug af stærke syrer som fosforsyre og svovlsyre. Disse kan erstattes af syrefri produkter.
Alectia A/S - Thursday, February 21, 2008



Suction of oil in connection with change of motor oil
When changing oil on a car through the drain plug, oil was often spilled. By using an oil suction apparatus, spills and thus use of strong cleaning agents were avoided.
Solrød Kommune - Wednesday, November 01, 2006



Alternatives to chlorine-containing lubricants for demanding metal working in stainless steel and titanium
Chloroparaffins are used in considerable amounts as high-pressure additives in metal working lubricants. They are considered risky in terms of health and the environment. The example is a summary of a project aimed at mapping existing alternative non-chlorinated lubricants for demanding non-cutting metal working tasks, testing the lubricating properties of selected lubricants, and evaluating the health-related and environmental properties of the lubricants.
Danish Environmental Protection Agency - Tuesday, February 14, 2006



Unleaded soldering of electronics
The experiences of five large Nordic companies in connection with substitution of leaded soldering products are described. As successful substitutes, tin/silver/copper compounds are mainly used.
SINTEF - Thursday, December 15, 2005



Phosphate-based flame retardants for plastic
Brominated flame retardants (suspected of being endocrine disrupters and feto-toxic) in plastic have been replaced by phosphate-based flame retardants.
JobLiv Danmark as - Thursday, January 06, 2005



Use of halogen-free fire retardants in fibre-reinforced polyethylene foils
Instead of halogen-containing fire retardants (especially brominated), it is possible to use halogen-free fire retardants in fibre-reinforced polyethylene foils.
COWI A/S - Wednesday, August 04, 2004



Maling indeholdende xylen
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Autolakering - vandige produkter fremfor opløsningsmiddelholdige
MALER BST - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Neutralisering af vaskevand
JobLiv Danmark as - Thursday, July 03, 2003



Fra styren til epoxy
JobLiv Danmark as - Thursday, July 03, 2003



Nikkelbad - forslag til alternativer
Arbejdsmiljøcentret - Thursday, June 26, 2003



Jointing compound - from styrene to two component methacrylate
The company, which produces rollers for the printing industry, used a jointing product with 13-18% styrene. This product has now been replaced by a two component adhesive based on methacrylate and dibenzoyl.
H. Gerhardt A/S - Thursday, June 26, 2003



Metallim - fra epoxy til metacrylat
H. Gerhardt A/S - Thursday, June 26, 2003



Afrensning ved reparation og service
ABB A/S - Tuesday, June 24, 2003



IPA-sprit afløst af special cleaner
Bang & Olufsen A/S - Friday, March 28, 2003



Rustbeskyttelse af metalplader
JobLiv Danmark as - Monday, March 24, 2003



Cleaning of printed circuit boards after soldering
Using freon for this purpose is prohibited in Denmark. Instead, an alkaline detergent in an industrial automatic dishwasher is used.
BST Århus - Monday, March 24, 2003



Alternative alloys to replace leaded bronzes
To replace leaded bronzes at foundries, cobber-based casting alloys, e.g. tin bronze consisting of cobber, tin (CAS No. 7440-31-5 Tin ) and lead 0.8% (CAS No. 7439-92-1 Lead ), can be used.
Industriens Branchearbejdsmiljøråd - Thursday, October 16, 2003



Brunering - fra giftigt/ætsende produkt til nikkelsulfat
Jern og Metalbranchens BST - Thursday, September 11, 2003



Glue based on dichloromethane replaced by dual adhesive tape
A company used glue based on dichloromethane (CAS No. 75-09-2 Dichloromethane ) to glue plastic plates on to polycarbonate plates. The glue can be replaced by dual adhesive tape.
Jern og Metalbranchens BST - Thursday, September 11, 2003



Vurdering af 3 slibemidler.
JobLiv Danmark as - Thursday, September 11, 2003



Rustbeskyttelse.
JobLiv Danmark as - Thursday, September 11, 2003



Substitution af køle-smøremiddel.
JobLiv Danmark as - Wednesday, September 10, 2003



Cleaning of colour fibre nozzles with methylethyl ketone
The company used methylethyl ketone (MEK)(CAS No. 78-93-3 2-Butanone ) and dichloromethane (CAS No. 75-09-2 Dichloromethane ) for cleaning of colour fibre nozzles. Instead, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (CAS No. 872-50-4 1-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidinone ) can be used.
JobLiv Danmark as - Wednesday, September 10, 2003



Epoxylim til metal.
JobLiv Danmark as - Wednesday, September 10, 2003



Methylene chloride for cleaning of nozzles in ultrasonic bath
The company used methylene chloride (CAS No. 75-09-2 Dichloromethane ) in an ultrasonic bath to remove urethane acrylate from nozzles and filters. This has been replaced by cyclohexanone (CAS No. 108-94-1 Cyclohexanone ).
JobLiv Danmark as - Tuesday, April 04, 2006



Rengøringsprodukter til vaskehal for biler.
JobLiv Danmark as - Tuesday, September 09, 2003



Køle-smøremiddel med mange indholdsstoffer
JobLiv Danmark as - Tuesday, September 02, 2003



Olieafrensning af gulv
JobLiv Danmark as - Monday, September 01, 2003



Unleaded solder wire
A company which produces metal blanks for the electronics industry used leaded solder wire. This has been replaced by unleaded solder wire.
JobLiv Danmark as - Tuesday, April 04, 2006



Spartelmasse med styren
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Svejsning med thoriumlegerede elektroder
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Affedtning af metalemner med trichlorethen
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Sprøjtemaling med bly til lakering af vogne
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Affedtning af metalemner før lakering
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Affedtning med trichlorethylen
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



TIG-svejsning med thoriumlegerede elektroder
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Lager med produkter med høje kodenumre (MAL-koder)
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Affedtning af messing med trichlorethylen
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Cobolt til fremstilling af indikatorpapir
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Affedtning med trichlorethylen
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Affedtning med trichlorethylen
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Brunering - fra giftigt/ætsende til nikkelsulfat
Arbejdstilsynet - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Korrosionsbeskyttelse med lavere MAL-kodenummer
Dronningborg Industries A/S - Monday, August 25, 2003



From solvent to demineralised water
Degreasers with solvents, including chlorated solvents, for washing of metal blanks were replaced by a fully automatic washing system with strong or weak alkaline degreasers or demineralised water.
Grundfos A/S - Monday, August 25, 2003



Cleaning of stainless blanks by means of hydrofluoric acid
After TIC welding, a workshop cleaned the metal blanks with hydrofluoric acid. The use of a machine with phosphoric acid has replaced the hydrofluoric acid.
Biocentrum, Technical University of Denmark - Tuesday, April 04, 2006



Produktvalg til industriel overfladebehandling
MALER BST - Thursday, August 21, 2003



Water-based degreasing of aluminium
Many companies use solvent-based agents, primarily trichloroethylene, for degreasing metal. Water-based agents can be used for degreasing steel, aluminium and several other metals.
Miljøstyrelsen - Monday, May 26, 2003



Afrensning af metaldele
AH Værktøj- og metalvarefabrik A/S - Monday, May 12, 2003



Chrom/nikkelallergi ved slibning i rustfrit stål
Lars Østergaard ApS - Wednesday, April 09, 2003



IPA-sprit erstattet af vandbaseret affedtningsmiddel
BST Århus - Tuesday, March 25, 2003



Epoxy primer replaced by polyvinyl butyral primer
For priming of steel blanks in a system, a company used a dual component epoxy primer. The epoxy primer has been replaced by a dual component polyvinyl butyral primer (PVB primer).
BST Århus - Tuesday, March 25, 2003



Microfibre cloths for cleaning of metal surfaces
The company used cleaning agents containing solvents for cleaning electronic equipment cabinets. The cleaning agent has been replaced by microfibre cloths with clean water or mild detergent.
JobLiv Danmark as - Monday, March 24, 2003



Removal of acrylate residue without using dichloromethane
Metal nozzles used for coating optical fibres are cleaned from acrylate residues in an ultrasonic bath filled with dibasic esters; thereafter continued operation of the tools. Originally dichloromethane was used, then N-methylpyrrolidone was tested, and finally DBE (dibasic esters) were adopted.
JobLiv Danmark as - Monday, March 24, 2003



Afrensning af silketrykskabeloner
Bang & Olufsen A/S - Monday, March 24, 2003



Afrensning af bremser
DTC - Monday, March 24, 2003



Cleaning of engine parts
Large amounts of solvents were formerly used for cleaning of engine parts. An alkaline heavy-duty cleaner with code-number 00-1 when diluted is now used instead.
Forsvarets BST - Monday, March 24, 2003



Fixing of end plugs - from glue to mechanical joining
An iron and metal company used to fix end pieces on tap fittings by means of cyanoacrylate-based glue. The design of the end pieces was changed so that the joining no longer requires gluing, but only mechanical joining.
BST Århus - Monday, March 24, 2003



Replacement of trichloroethylene for degreasing of metal
An iron and metal company used trichloroethylene when degreasing metal parts. After a discussion of purity requirements, many of the parts are now cleaned in a closed washing system using alkaline cleaning fluid.
Autobranchens BST - Tuesday, March 11, 2003



Sur affedtning af aluminium
Miljøstyrelsen - Sunday, February 23, 2003



Rengøring af mekanisk højglanspolerede aluminiumsoverflader
Miljøstyrelsen - Sunday, February 23, 2003



Alkaline degreasing of aluminium and steel before powder finishing
Degreasing of steel and aluminium parts with trichloroethylene (CAS No. 79-01-6 Trichloroethylene ) has been replaced by degreasing with alkaline degreasers containing phosphates and tensides.
Miljøstyrelsen - Sunday, February 23, 2003



Alkaline degreasing of aluminium before electrophoresis finishing
In a large company, the use of solvents for degreasing of cast aluminium pump cases has been replaced by a combination of shot blasting of the blanks with steel balls, subsequent use of water-based cooling lubricant, washing with water at 60 degrees and degreasing using an alkaline degreasing agent.
Miljøstyrelsen - Sunday, February 23, 2003



Kølesmøremiddel
BST Sjælland - Friday, February 07, 2003



Blyfri loddetin
Brüel & Kjær - Friday, January 24, 2003



Polermiddel til metalemner
Brüel & Kjær - Friday, January 24, 2003



Electro-chemical cleaning of metal parts
Sulphuric acid 96% replaced by nitric acid 5% in electrolytic degreasing.
Brüel & Kjær - Friday, January 24, 2003



Removal of cutting oil from metal parts
Cutting oil on bought-in metal parts was removed by electro-chemical cleaning, first with strong base and then with strong acid. This method has been replaced by cleaning in n-propylbromide in a closed system, supplemented by demands on sub-supplier.
Brüel & Kjær - Friday, January 24, 2003



Spirit-washing of metal parts in cleanroom
Metal parts with very high requirements as regards cleanliness are washed in ethanol. Plasma cleaning is tested as an alternative.
Brüel & Kjær - Friday, January 24, 2003



Removal of flux with vegetable oil and soap
Brüel & Kjær earlier used freon for removing flux residue from metal parts. Now, the parts are soaked in vegetable oil and then washed with mild detergent in an industrial automatic dishwasher. This substitution ensures a more efficient cleaning than with freon.
Brüel & Kjær - Thursday, November 01, 2007



Udskiftning af skærevæske
BST Sjælland - Thursday, January 23, 2003



Cleaning of small metal parts using alkaline soap product
A small metal company used to remove oil and dirt from metal parts by means of trichloroethylene (CAS No. 79-01-6 Trichloroethylene ), which is considered to be carcinogenic. Instead, it has now invested in an ultrasonic bath with an alkaline soap solution.
BST Sjælland - Thursday, December 05, 2002



Erstatning af kølesmøremiddel
BST Sjælland - Thursday, December 05, 2002



Anticorrosive paint. From solvent to water
Road grates were formerly immerse-painted in paint containing xylene (CAS No. 1330-20-7 dimethylbenzene ) having code-number 2-1, diluted with xylene-containing diluent having code-number 5-3. Water-based paint with code-number 00-1 is now used instead.
BST Sjælland - Thursday, December 05, 2002